Month: July 2012

Archaeological Travel Blog: Istanbul Part 2

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So the second day of my whirlwind trip to Istanbul begun with breakfast again with the amazing view of the Blue Mosque before heading out to the archaeological museums. The museums of course are what I really came to see and I will be spending much time there at the end of my trip too but first for the scouting and the touristy part!

The archaeological museums in Istanbul are located behind the Hagia Sophia near Topkapi palace but I was surprised to see such a lack of people visiting them despite this prime location. They really were amazing. A fantastic collection of Mesopotamian, Greek and Anatolian artefacts in a number of buildings, nicely set out and easily accessible. And yet the museums always have parts of them closed because of the lack of funding and visitors. Such a shame. In fact it only sees around 200,000 visitors a year which isn’t all the much when you think how much it has and how big the complex is.

Istanbul Archaeological Museum - Court and ent...
Istanbul Archaeological Museum – Court and entrance

There are three main museums in the complex: The Archaeological Museum, the Museum of the Ancient Orient, and the Museum of Islamic Art AKA the Tiled Kiosk. They house over a million objects representing civilizations that have had interactions with the area. The complex was established in 1892 as part of an effort to modernize the Ottoman Empire. The collection includes the ornate Alexander Sarcophagus which was once believed to have be prepared for Alexander the Great himself. Other famous pieces include The Kadesh Peace Treaty of 1258 BC, signed between Ramesses II and Hattusili III, the oldest known peace treaty in the world. It also includes the Lycian tomb, the glazed tile images of the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, statues of the Roman Era, Sidon sarcophagi, Troy exhibit, and artefacts from the early civilisations of the area.

Admittedly though the best thing was locating the inscriptions I needed to look at later in the trip for my research work. Yay!

Next stop, after a very late lunch, The Grand Bazaar! And my goodness was that an experience. For those of you unfamiliar with it, The Grand Bazaar was founded in 1461 by the Sultan Mehmet II designed as the trading heart of the Empire. In addition to shops, banks, storerooms and cafes, it used to hold accommodation, baths, mosques and schools, but is today mostly a mass of shops. It has been destroyed several times by earthquakes and fires but is still going strong.

Why I say this was an experience relates to the people you meet inside the bazaar. Notably the male shop owners shouting things you would certainly not hear in polite society. But as long as you are prepared for this it isn’t too bad. And I did like the comments referring to us three girls and one guy as Charlies’ Angels. I’m sure it was not original but it was amusing. Especially when we explained that the male in our party was more like Bosley than Charlie.

Just don’t buy anything in the Bazaar. They will charge you out the ear and while bartering is fun it can be long and unnecessary. Just go to the next street over beside but outside the Bazaar and buy what you want for a fraction of the Bazaar price. Trust me we checked.

Next Stop: Dig site. Near the town of Gazipasa in Southern Turkey. Check out the FACEBOOK page for more regular updates!

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Archaeology Travel Blog: Istanbul pt. 1

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Hi everyone from Turkey! That’s right I finally got here after talking about it for months on end, having visa issues and permits being delayed. Been here four days and we have managed to pack in so much into a limited amount of time. If you don’t remember, I’m in Turkey to do some research for my PhD in Istanbul and also some archaeology down south at Antiochia ad Cragum, a Roman pirate port with temple complex, roman roads and mosaics. Very exciting.

First thing one realises in Istanbul is that there are some things that we’re going to have to get used to…for a start the driving. Cars have priority and within thirty minutes of arriving I was fearing for my life as the airport shuttle played chicken with every other car, truck and bike on the road. But eventually I made it to the Hotel in Sultanahmet in one piece where I met two of the girls and one of the guys also going on the dig. Awesome hotel in the middle of the old city with Hagia Sophia on one side, the blue mosque on the other and within walking distance of anything and everything. Definitely recommend the Star Holiday Hotel to anyone going to Istanbul. Well priced and amazing views.

After having a good Turkish dinner (gozleme in Turkey! For my fellow PhD Y3A colleagues) and a broken night due to the sounds of the gulls which are in abundance in Istanbul and the mosques which hail late at night and around 5am in the morning, we started our sightseeing.

First stop on my grand one day tour of Istanbul: Hagia Sophia! And my goodness is it worth the visit as the first and best site we saw in Istanbul. For those of you unfamiliar here is a little bit about the site:

Hagia Sophia is one of the world’s foremost architectural wonders. It was originally a church which burnt down in 404 AD and then secondly destroyed in the Nika Riots of 532 AD. The third church to stand on the site was inaugurated by the Emperor Justinian in 537 and is that which remains to be seen today. It has survived countless wars, conflicts and earthquakes and was converted into a mosque in 1453. Today it is classified as a museum, as it has been since 1934, which means that no head scarves are necessary and anyone can see the wonders inside.

On going into the site one is firstly struck by the many cats around and then one enters the entrance hall and glimpses the huge hall that comes after. It really is amazing, not to mention enormous! After getting over the initial wow factor, actually that wasn’t really possible, I was struck by the interesting combination of Islamic and Christian elements left over from the conversion in the fifteenth century. The dome in the centre of the roof is of course the highlight with beautiful arrays of designs and colours, but I was also fascinated by the wall paintings in the upper galleries and the ceiling paintings in the side galleries where earlier work had clearly been painted over with the conversion to Islam. I soon realised that with Hagia Sophia if you want to really experience it you must look past the big and focus on the details; the chip marks where crosses had been defaced, the Greek graffiti and stone mason marks hidden in the corners and the cracks in the floors. Amazing site, still can’t get over it, the history just hits you right in the face and it is fantastic!

After spending the majority of the morning in Hagia Sophia we moved on to the Basilica Cistern when we realised that the tour groups were on the rise in Hagia. The Basilica Cistern is a vast underground water-storage tank (if you can really call it that) just across from Hagia Sophia. It was created in the reign of Constantine and was later expanded by Justinian in 532 to ensure that Constantinople was always supplied with water. It once was capable of holding 18 million gallons of water! The roof of the cistern is supported by 336 pillars over 8ms in height and also contains two medusa head statues which came from older Greek buildings and are believed to have been from the Hellenistic period. It was also used as the set of one of the earlier Bond films apparently. It is full of fish the size of my lower leg and quite happy in their little microenvironment and is just beautiful when the columns are lit up by ground lights. It is also apparently a stage for some musical performances but none were playing when we were there. While a little soggy, the cistern was a fantastic and different following to Hagia Sophia.

Site number three was unfortunately a little disappointing because it had the potential to be amazing. Topkapi palace was built by Mehmet II as his main residence in 1459-65. It was also Mehmet’s seat of parliament and a college for training officials and soldiers. While the government later moved in the 16th century, Topkapi remained as a palace until Abdul Mecit I moved the Sultan’s main residence to Dolmabahce Palace in 1856. The palace includes imperial gates, courtyards, throne rooms, a harem, treasury, barracks, salons, apartments, baths and halls. It has the potential to be a fascinating site but there were two main issues: firstly and primarily the tourists. The number of people at the palace was just overwhelming, you could hardly see in front of you and the lines to get in to any of the buildings were worse than Disneyland. After what seemed like an eternity we managed to get into the Treasury to find that more people standing in front of the exhibits completely obscured our views. Problem number two: no signage. Seriously how were we meant to know what anything is without anywhere to get a map, no signs and not even the occasional arrow. It was frustrating to say the least. The most interesting thing we did find though was the stone throne outside where the sultan used to watch the sports. A beautiful piece of stone work, inscribed and decorated, and yet hidden in a corner and ignored with a worn label next to it. Topkapi, I’m sure is amazing, but with that many people and no idea where anything is it was a waste of 25 TL and we saw nothing. A shame but well it’s all part of the experience. Fortunately the rest of the sites that day made up for it.

After a late lunch and a short break we headed to our next exhibit on the Istanbul trail: the Blue Mosque. The Blue Mosque was commissioned by the Sultan Ahmet when he was only 19 years old. So great was his enthusiasm for the project that at times he even worked alongside the labourers. His aim was to surpass the Suleymaniye Mosque and the Hagia Sophia. Well he tried, didn’t quite succeed with the latter at least. The mosque was finished in 1616 and is celebrated as one of the best working mosques in the world known especially for it’s blue Iznik tiles in the interior. The mosque is a fantastic opportunity to experience the culture and mix with the locals but the tourists really stand out. Still I found wearing a head scarf a surprisingly nice experience, makes you feel like you belong there in the culture. The building itself was spectacular too with giant columns and beautiful stained glass windows.

So much to write, so little time. Signing off for now. More of Istanbul and the archaeological site to come.

Important Rules to Remember When Learning Ancient Greek Part 4

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Welcome to part 4! This post looks at the basic demonstrative pronouns, which I may address again later when I have more time, and the present and middle voices in Classical and Koine Greek. Hope you find this interesting and/or useful.

Paradigms of the Demonstrative Pronouns

  • Not to be confused with the paradigms of αὐτός and the definite articles – can tell by context, breathing and accenting. Demonstrative pronouns have a rough breathing
  • Demonstratives indicate ‘this’ or ‘that’
  • The declension of ‘THIS’ = οὗτος = ‘near demonstrative’
    • Rough breathing occurs in the nominative masculine and feminine in both the singular and plural
    • The diphthong of the stem of the ‘near demonstrative’, OU or AU, varies with vowel of the ending O (W) or A (H)

Demonstrative Pronoun: “THIS”

masculine feminine neuter
sing. plur. sing. plur. sing. plur.
nom. οὗτος οὗτοι αὕτη αὗται τοῦτο ταῦτα
gen. τούτου τούτων ταύτης τούτων τούτου τούτων
dat. τούτῳ τούτοις ταύτῃ ταύταις τούτῳ τούτοις
acc. τοῦτον τούτους ταύτην ταύτας τοῦτο ταῦτα
  • The declensions of ‘THAT’ = ἐκεῖνος = ‘far demonstrative’
    • Identical endings to that of οὗτος

Demonstrative Pronoun: “THAT”

masculine feminine neuter
sing. plur. sing. plur. sing. plur.
nom. ἐκεῖνος ἐκεῖνοι ἐκείνη ἐκεῖναι ἐκεῖνο ἐκεῖνα
gen. ἐκείνου ἐκείνων ἐκείνης ἐκείνων ἐκείνου ἐκείνων
dat. ἐκείνῳ ἐκείνοις ἐκείνῃ ἐκείναις ἐκείνῳ ἐκείνοις
acc. ἐκεῖνον ἐκείνους ἐκείνην ἐκείνας ἐκεῖνο ἐκεῖνα

Uses of the Demonstratives

  • Three main uses

    P.Duk.inv.98r – Private Letter
  • Mostly used to modify nouns – so agree with the noun in gender, number and case
    • Stands in the predicate position
    • Never immediately preceded by the definite article
    • Greek demonstrative pronouns always modify arthrous nouns
    • Both THIS and THAT may be used by themselves with the force of a substantive
      • This one, or that one
      • When demonstrative pronouns occur with anarthrous nouns they are NOT modifiers of these nouns but pronouns
      • May be used to refer to persons mentioned in the immediately preceding context
        • Translated simply as he, she, or they
ἐκεῖνος ὁ ἄνθρωπος = than man
ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος = than man
ὁ ἄνθρωπός ἐστιν οὗτος = the man is this one

The Present Middle and Passive Indicative of λύω

  • The passive voice – subject is receiving the action of the verb
  • The middle voice – represents the subject as acting in its own interest or to participate
  • Just how the action is related to the subject is not indicated by the middle voice itself but by the context or the verbal idea
  • I am being loosed = λύομαι
  • Connecting vowel o/e are clearly observable in all forms, except in the second person singular
  • Forms of the middle voice are identical with those of the passive, the context alone will indicate whether the construction is middle or passive in function
  • Eg, p.87
  • Negative is immediately before the verb – OU

Uses of the Middle Voice

  • Is involved in the action of the verb
  • Manner of the involvement must be inferred from the context
  • I am releasing myself; I am releasing for myself; I myself am releasing
  • REFLEXIVE MIDDLE = result of the action of the verb directly to the subject, eg. ‘Judas handed himself’
  • INTENSIVE MIDDLE = emphasizes the agent as producing the action rather than participating in its results, eg. ‘he himself secured eternal redemption’
  • RECIPROCAL MIDDLE = use of the plural subject engaged in an interchange of action, eg. ‘The Jews were agreeing with on another’
    • This idea is expressed usually by an active verb plus the pronoun ἀλλήλους (one another)

Deponent Verbs

  • Verbs with middle or passive forms without any corresponding active forms = DEPONENT verbs
  • Eg. ERXOMAI ‘I go’ = middle in form but active in meaning
  • TRUE MIDDLES = in which the subject is being emphasized in some manner; Following categories:
  • RECIPROCITY = describe situations in which two parties are involved
  • REFLEXIVITY = verbal idea turns back upon the subject
  • SELF-INVOLVEMENT = processes that the subject alone can experience
  • With some verbs the active form has one meaning and the middle another
  • A number of deponent verbs occur with a prepositional prefix
  • Several NT verbs take their direct objects in a case other than the accusative


  • Passive verb will often by followed by the identification of an agent
  • THE DIRECT AGENT = by whom an action is performed = UNO + GENITIVE
  • INTERMEDIATE AGENT = through whom the original agent acts = DIA + GENITIVE
  • IMPERSONAL AGENCY = in dative case with or without EN
  • The passive voice frequently occurs when no agent is expressed. This usage occurs frequently in the sayings of Jesus

Resources that may help you further:

Perseus Vocabulary Tools

New Testament Greek Grammar Books

Learn to Read New Testament Greek, Third Edition, By: David Alan Black

Little Greek 101

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The Valley of the Dawn – Made-up religion of 32,000 years?

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A bit more on the anthropological side, but its history goes back 32 000 years…

Also known as Vale do Amanhecer, the Valley of Dawn is a Brazilian religion that was founded in 1957 by Tia Neiva – a 31 year old female truck driver who had a ‘vision’ about an empire built on the backs of titans. It is a religion based on reincarnation and liberation. Valley of the Dawn encompasses all religions with the exception of Islam. It is Millenarian and messianic and any one can join.

It boasts 30-40000 members and has over 70 external temples throughout Brazil. 90% of its members are of the working and poverty class of Brazil, with the core consisting of the labourers who were left without work after the constructions and completion of the Brazilian capital, Brasilia.

Now, the most fascinating aspect of this religion is its belief system.

The people of the Valley of the Dawn believe that they are the descendants of an alien race from the planet Capella, that came to earth 32 000 years ago. In the ritual known as ‘The Consecration Ritual’, a space ship flies through the earth’s atmosphere twice a day. The spaceship (Amace), is full of a “factory of forces”, and is a “spiritual laboratory” for mediums of the cult to use as a cleansing and education tool for malevolent spirits. The purpose of this is to trap the evil spirits by jumping into the sacred waters of the lake, educate them, and then release the know enlightened spirits into the world.

This is just a very summed up look into the cult. It is far more complex, having its own city, laws and bureaucracies. Anyways, check it out.


This post is the first piece by new contributor, Claire. Claire is an ancient history and museum studies enthusiast who has completed a degree in Museum Studies at Macquarie University and is planning to start her post-graduate in the next year. She has a fantastic knowledge of the historical and anthropological in addition to several ancient languages and cultures. Happy to have her on board as she contributes firstly to the new facebook page alongside myself.

The new GRAECOMUSE FACEBOOK PAGE is now up and running! Like it to share discussions, news and posts!

Graecomuse and Parkinson’s Disease

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Hello again to all my dear followers! This post is kind of a follow up to my post on the Parkinson’s Disease in Ancient History. It is all very well looking at the past but we must also look to the future.

I would love for some of you to take the five minutes to read the below information and/or visit my fundraising page just to raise a little more awareness about Parkinson’s Disease.

Fellow Parkinson’s Fundraiser Misty!

Parkinson’s Disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system resulting in decreased motor skills due to the death of dopamine-generating cells. Symptoms include tremors and rigidity, gait, slowness in movement, cognitive issues, sensory and emotional issues, sleep problems and depression. With over 80,000 people in Australia living with Parkinson’s, it is almost certain that you know someone affected by it.

The Role Reversal

There is unfortunately a limited awareness of Parkinson’s Disease in modern society. If you would like to find out more about Parkinson’s for yourself, family or friends, then please go to which provides information, support, helplines and ways you can help.

It’s only in the last while, with the likes of celebrities such as Michael J Fox, Mohammed Ali and the last Pope being affected, that it is finally getting some coverage.

Join Team Fox

There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, but there are effective treatment and therapyoptions that can help manage symptoms, so people with Parkinson’s disease can continue to enjoy many years of independent and productive lives.